You provided the link to the OpenStack images, but which image did you actually use for upload to glance?
I like to use the cirros images, but it only works for me with an older version from about two years ago. You wrote you tested it in another cloud, so I assume it did work there?
I made the experience that images without a valid partition table don't work in our cloud, so I wrote a short blog post about that.
How are you launching the instance? Did you try both ways, as a nova disk (without a volume) and as a cinder volume?
Have you tested other images? Did you set any metadata for that image in glance?
Does the hypervisor work without the OpenStack layer? You could try to launch an instance with virt-manager without using OpenStack.